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The movement first emerged in America around 1914 as the result of doctrinal disputes within the nascent Pentecostal movement and claims an estimated 24 million adherents today. They also tend to emphasize strict “holiness standards” in dress, grooming and other areas of personal conduct that are not necessarily shared by other Pentecostal groups, at least not to the degree that is generally found in Oneness churches. Jesus Christ is the manifestation, human personification, or incarnation of the one God. God as simultaneous instead of successive, as is the case with classical Modalism.
They contend that, based on Colossians 2:9, the concept of God’s personhood is reserved for the immanent and incarnate presence of Jesus only. Oneness theology specifically maintains that God is absolutely and indivisibly one. Oneness Pentecostalism rejects all concepts of a subordination, duality, trinity, pantheon, co-equality, co-eternity, or other versions of the Godhead that assert plural gods, plural beings, divine “persons”, individuals, or multiple centers of consciousness within that Godhead. It equally denies all concepts of Jesus as anything other than fully God and fully man, together with all teachings that assert that he was merely a “good man,” or only a sinless man, high priest or prophet, rather than God himself. Oneness doctrine declares that Jesus Christ is the only begotten Son of God, but that this happened only when he was born from Mary on Earth. So from the Oneness viewpoint the Son is both distinct from the Father while being essentially one with the Father by virtue of his ontological oneness with the Father.
Oneness Pentecostals reject the Trinity doctrine of distinct “co-equal and co-eternal persons in one triune Godhead” as a non-biblical distortion or an extra-Biblical invention, which dilutes true Biblical Monotheism, and also, in a sense, limits God. Oneness believers say that God can operate using an unlimited number of manifestations, not just three. However, they recognize that the Father, Son, and Holy Spirit are the great and major roles that God has carried out in man’s redemption. Oneness Pentecostals believe that Trinitarian doctrine is a “tradition of men” and neither scriptural nor a teaching of God, and cite the absence of the word “Trinity” from the Bible as one evidence of this. One True God in the universe. God was manifested as the Father in creation, the Son in redemption, and the Holy Ghost in emanation. The Father and the Holy Spirit are one and the same personal God, according to Oneness theology.
They teach that the “Holy Spirit” is a descriptive title for God manifesting Himself through His church and in the world. Godhead, but rather two different ways in which the one God reveals himself to his creatures. Thus, the Old Testament speaks of “The Lord God and his Spirit” in Isaiah 48:16, but this does not indicate two “persons” according to Oneness theology. Rather, “The Lord” indicates God in all of his glory and transcendence, while “his Spirit” refers to his own Spirit that moved upon and spoke to the prophet.